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Natalya Tsidylo

About Lviv

   As a real diamond in Eastern Europe, Lviv resembles an open air museum, it is 2000 historical, architectural and cultural monuments. The city was founded in the middle of the XIII century. (1256) Prince Daniel of Galicia and is named in honor of his son Lion.

Lviv quickly became the commercial and economic center of the region. The favorable location of the city at the crossroads of trade routes from the Black and Baltic seas, from Kiev, Central and Western Europe contributed to its rapid economic development . Geographical position and natural resources attracted foreigners : Tatars, Germans , Hungarians, Poles, Lithuanians, Austrians and Swedes. For centuries, they brought here their culture and tradition, religion - hence the architecture of Lviv mixture of Gothic and Baroque , Renaissance and Romanesque, Rococo and Empire , modern eclecticism and constructivism. However, throughout the Ukrainian culture in Lviv remained decisive.Old Lions - is primarily the Market Square , the center and focus of its social , economic and cultural life . Six centuries of history of Lviv is inextricably linked with this relatively small , almost square area measuring 142 by 129 meters Here was a magistrate , palaces and houses significant townspeople here traded here deciding the justice and punishment .

With four sides of the square in 1793 on the site of the former wells installed fountains , sculptures : Neptune, Adonis, Diana and Amphitrite .Market Square has witnessed the most important city events in 1356 , with the adoption of the Magdeburg Law . Magdeburg law - one of the most famous urban systems feudal law. It arose in the XII century . in the German city of Magdeburg . Legally secured the rights and freedoms of citizens , their right to adoption samoupravlinnya.Z Magdeburg law Lviv ceased to be dependent on the royal administration , and reported directly to the king, whose interests are represented by the headman .The earliest mention of the town hall in 1381 refers to the time it was a wooden structure , completed high tower and a gallery for local trumpeter . But fire was not spared the building. At the beginning of the XVII century. new town hall was built with high octagonal tower topped gilded iron lion. But the town hall was not preserved to this day - its tower had fallen in 1826The construction of the building , which is now lying on the square was completed in 1835 on the draft Yu Markley , F. Treter , A. Vondrashky . Despite its massiveness , Hall organically entered the architectural ensemble of Lviv, and its tower has become a symbol of the city. Tower height of 65 m in 1852 on her clock was installed . To him are 400 steps . Dial diameter 3 m , length 2m large arrows 15 cm

Entrance to the town hall guarded by two lions . They keep the shields with the arms of the city. The basis of the coat of arms of Lviv put print Galician princes. The coat of arms - the city gates and towers, which showed that the defense power of Lviv, grilles raised - it says hospitality townspeople, and uninvited guests from the entrance to the city, guarding lion .Today Lviv is a treasure trove of ideas and national culture, it is the economic , educational and cultural center of Western Ukraine . There are many museums, art galleries , theater and music companies . Majestic Lviv Opera and Ballet Theater has an extremely rich season. In Lviv, located 12 higher education institutions , it has a fairly well-deserved reputation as a city with a high level of education.It is here that one of the oldest in Central Europe and the first university in Ukraine based . However, Lviv is famous not only as a cultural and educational center , it is also a business development center . Thanks to the favorable economic environment in the city operates 166 enterprises and 333 as a whole - in the Lviv region . 11 % of the total investment in Ukraine invested in enterprises in Lviv . Their volume is growing annually .The first record dates back to Lviv in 1256 founded the city of Galicia- Volyn prince Daniil Romanovich and named it after his son Lev . However, archaeological research indicates that a settlement on the site of the modern city ( near the Old Market Square , in the territory of the monastery Onufrievskaya , John the Baptist Church , as well as st. Armenian ) existed in the XII century . , At least 100 years before the date of the chronicle . Center of ancient Lviv was modern Old Market area . City reliably protected the fortifications built by taking into account the natural environment - the High Castle hills and rivers Poltva .

After the capture of Lviv Polish king Casimir III the Great in 1349 the city center was moved to the south. The new settlement was based on Western European models: the central square, around residential neighborhoods and line of fortifications. Thus was formed the center of the city, or "city of walls." Its boundaries are delineated streets Lesya Ukrainian, Basement, Brothers Rogatintsev Liberty Ave. Downtown area was 36 hectares, and with fortifications - 50 hectares. This, indeed, was the city.

Lviv fortification system was formed almost 300 years. First , in the second half of the XIV century . , It consisted of a wall , a moat and a shaft. Somewhat later added another fence , which was called low, unlike the first , the High . In the city, you can enter through two gates - Cracow and Galicia , they were moved across the moat drawbridges .Very important part of the fortifications was the High Castle , founded about 1360 Lviv was extremely high strategic importance as a springboard for hiking Poland to Ukraine , Russia , Moldova . Wealth same city looker conquerors - Tatars , Moldovans , Turks and private gentry.All this makes us pay more attention to strengthening the defense of the city. In 1445, completed the establishment of a system of fortifications : the high and low walls, a deep moat that protected the city from the north , east and south , the inner moat , which was located between the walls, a powerful defensive wall . High and Low locks .High wall (8 m in height , about 2 m thick) had 18 ( according to other sources - 17) battle towers and two gates already mentioned , each of which was a real defense complex . All towers with adjoining land walls were assigned to specific craft shop . Were later made ​​for pedestrians two fortified gates - Jesuit and Bossatska .

Two walls protected the city from the north, east and south. On the west side there was only one - tall, because this side flowed Poltva . At that time it was a narrow but deep river with rapid current and marshes . Swamps , densely forested and shrub , stretched from modern Liberty Ave post office to the line - University and reliably protects the city . On this side, it was difficult to approach even the infantry, not to mention the siege vehicles and artillery.Strengthening Lviv developed further. Added new towers , and in the XVI century . System fortification was introduced City arsenal , which is adjacent to the outside wall of the High .Development of firearms made ​​the old system of defense of little towns . Therefore, in the second half of the XVI century. city ​​walls begin to do less but thicker . Widespread use acquire bastions - earthworks , which were staged gun .The use of firearms in the towers of the old design was ineffective. Confined space tower with narrow loopholes , designed for archery, much narrower field of view. When firing gunpowder smoke filled the tower. Therefore, since the XVII century . widely used Bastia - semicircular defenses open . Unlike tower Basteja had no roof . She completed an outdoor area enclosed with teeth , which treated more guns and handguns - gakovnitsy and fortress guns .Lviv Basten were built into the low wall. Two of them survived to our time - on the street. Basement and the basement etc. . № 32 on the street. Rogatintsev brothers .The last major building in Lviv system of fortifications was Royal Arsenal (now st. Cellar , 13) , built in the 40s of the XVII century.High Castle built by King Casimir III in the 60s XIV. Some scientists believe that it was built on the foundations of the castle of Prince Lev , but this view has not found sufficient evidence . The castle was the property of the king. His commander - burgrave - served as deputy warden of the Royal .

The composition of the fortifications of the castle consists of seven towers, fortified gates and the house where the garrison was located . Already in 1495 he had artillery armament . In the yard was well. However, the water in it was not. Had to carry water from below or take a rain .Built on a 300 -meter-high mountain, by the way, in those days, much steeper than it is now , the High Castle seemed impregnable stronghold . And he and she remained for nearly 300 years - first stormed in 1648 Maxima Krivonosa Cossacks .But impregnable at a time when success in battle dared cold weapons , the castle lost its military significance in an era when firearms appeared . Persistent lack of facility in the state treasury not allowed not only to convert it into line with the new arm umoi additional guns, but even after that thoroughly repaired in 1648 he brought out the garrison , and in 1672 the Turks occupied it without a fight. Abandoned fate castle gradually destroyed the late XVIII century . it began to dismantle , using stones for construction of buildings and roads. Finally, it was dismantled in the 70th year of the XIX century . When big barrow in honor of the 300th anniversary of the Union of Lublin . K; menie used on the foundation of the mound. In memory of all the descendants leave only a fragment of the south wall.

Low castle stood on the site that hosts the National Museum and the Theatre . M. Zankovetska . He held eastern kutukrii stump and unlike the High Castle was part of them organically constituent part. Built during the second half of the XIV century. of wood, he was fired in 1381 p . It was rebuilt again from the tree, and only after a fire in 1565 erected a stone building. The castle had an amazingly beautiful Renaissance facade, which came out on the modern street . Theater . The structure consisted of three towers of the castle - the scoring , or gentry , Jewelers and angular , and the inner moat . Officials tower stood on the site of the lawn in front of the National Museum , in front of her on the shaft - Hetman Basteja .

In 1537 King Sigismund I signed in the castle Lowest document according to which heredity monarchy was abolished in Poland - an act had a huge impact on the future course of the country's history . King became elective , and it put an end to all attempts to create an absolute monarchy , paved the way for the "golden gentry in - tivity " , in other words , unbounded noble tyranny .

In 1704 after the capture of Lviv to Lowest castle lived the Swedish King Karl XII.In the XVIII century . Low castle gradually turned into ruins . He began to disassemble, and already in 1802 in its place was a vacant lot , which does not resemble the past greatness .

Strengthening Lviv survived 24 siege - and did not the city was stormed . Strengthening demolished at the end of XVIII - early XIX century. Outside the fortifications extended territory and Galitsky Krakow suburbs. The composition of the latter entered and Old Lions. Galitsky suburb area of 150 hectares , of Krakow - 100 hectares. Such administrative division of the city lasted until 1787 At the beginning of June 1527 Lviv was completely destroyed by a terrible fire - summer was dry and hot, very strong wind was blowing . It was enough for a small spark in one of Lviv brewery to the entire city from the Town Hall and there were only one house in the suburbs . To convince the people of Lviv , he survived thanks to the intercession of the Virgin and was subsequently surrounded by religious reverence. It was dismantled only in 1786

The fire destroyed the stone building , in particular Galicia gate with all artillery weapons . In the temples bells melted . Wind blew burning embers on the High Castle , which broke out and burned down one of the towers . Hence cinders flew to Ascension village and burned it to the ground.

Apparently, there has been a phenomenon that in the XX century . called " fiery whirlwind " . Wooden houses in fire temperature becomes very high . This caused a sharp drop in atmospheric pressure and air flow , which further fanned the flames . In 1540 City Council banned wood construction in seredmis th . Unfortunately, this decision is not always adhered to (traditionally in Lviv). Much of the houses , especially in the Jewish area , still built of wood, does not contribute to fire safety. 1 Yet at the end of the XVI century. most of the houses were stone center . So they came to us , though considerably altered, with reversed internal planning .

So, for a long time home of Lviv were wooden or half-timbered " , built in the Gothic style. Shingle roofs were , and later - tiled . At XIV - the first half of the XVI century. Were all one-story house . Generally, it should be noted that the concept of" top " appears only in the Renaissance. by this time a clear distinction between the house in a horizontal plane at similar levels was unknown. Every major medieval house - a maze of additions , moves , transitions , linking the building, located on different levels.

Perhaps the most common type of home suburb of Lviv was a three-storey house with three windows on each floor. This type of binding was on the market. The surrounding streets could build a house with lots of windows.

I must say that his own house in the city center could only very rich people. The walls are not allowed the city to grow, and so many cost the earth , and the city was building material - stone, brick . Own home - an indicator of a firm 's position in society . The owner usually occupied the second floor. If you look to the arrangement of windows on the facade , it is striking asymmetry of two and one . Two windows should gornitsa one - bedroom . In the back of the house were other residential and barns often - chapel . Stepan was not so , we are accustomed to , that is smooth. Along it housed massive wooden beams , which adorned with carved figures , inscriptions and sometimes paintings. These ceilings are still preserved in some of the houses on the street. Market. The walls were netinkovani - this custom came much later , their veiled carpets. But in those days, the carpet is not adjacent to the wall tightly and hung at a certain distance from it. This created an additional layer of air , which was not more than a cold stone . Because usually the rooms are heated fireplaces. Certainly burning fireplace creates a cozy , warm the room but bad.

Let us return to the interior of a typical home in Lviv . The furniture was solid , heavy , mostly oak , richly decorated with carvings. It - tables, chairs , long drawers, which put under the walls . The chests were stored underwear while they were benches. Tables zastelyuvaly tablecloths valuable oriental fabrics or carpets. Special bedspreads zastelyuvaly benches and window sills .

Chairs testified wealth owner, were very good, expensive, but with one flaw - they were uncomfortable to sit , as they had an unfavorable structure. Sometimes soft chairs knocked kurdibanom - special grade leather, gilded and painted , decorated with embossed patterns.

Floor covered with carpets , mainly of Eastern origin : Turkish , Persian , Uzbek , Turkmen . This figure was also wealthy owner . In large closets stood utensils . He was often tin , often silver . Note that while , in the XVII century . , Tin cost a little cheaper than silver. Dishes decorated with carved figures. Along with metal dishes standing glass or crystal . Glass was often colored. In rich happened and porcelain cups . It was a great rarity - after porcelain imported from China. On fireplaces or put on the table clock. He showed not very accurate, and that from him and was not required. Problem hours - once again emphasize the consistency of the owner, because the clock itself was a rarity . Therefore, they are decorated with enamel, sculptural images and their hulls were made of bronze and gilded wood .

Considerable attention was paid to lighting. We are accustomed to associate with medieval lighting candles. And so, by candle light , but what ? Wax was very expensive , so even the rich people used wax candles rather sparingly, preferring the usual greasy . Widely used oil lamps that hung from the ceiling . In order to gain a kind of lighting used reflectors - tin plate with brass and polished concave central part. At the bottom was a special slot in which to insert the candle so that the flame is opposed to the polished surface , which enhanced the lighting.

On the walls hung paintings and portraits. Lviv preferred Italian and Dutch painting. Paintings mentioned in each testament rich citizen. Just like a book. Book Lviv loved and respected , and a library of several tens or even hundreds of volumes was not uncommon . Library famous tradesman Jan Alembeka ( right - Alnpek , died in 1636 ) consisted of 1200 volumes .

So looked housing homeowner . But one family rarely occupied house completely . Its premises were leased . And here about any benefits and the speech was not. Iron maidens set of different sizes, which huddled those who were forced to rent an apartment , even call it a flat can hardly be . There was a special term - " Piwniczna " , ie someone who lives in a pub ( the basement) . Usually the tenant in the same closet and had a workshop. One can imagine how life was such a craftsman . In his home was not carpet - except that some cheap floor mat . Benches and a table - of unpainted wood . Earthenware crockery , and that a little bit. Tallow candle lit room or just a night light . Courtyard in Lviv homes were small. Typically, they were different huts - warehouses or premises.

Sanitary conditions of the medieval city , you can not criticize. Rubbish dumped on the street. Did not have sewage . True , the market did gutters . They were provided in other quarters , and shall perform the duties flusher city executioner and his assistants . But since none of this work from him did not require it and he did.

However, occasionally performed sanitation , garbage filth for paying pennies 8 a barrel . Several times a year purified prison for paying two zlotys. Cleanliness Market had to follow a special person - Senior purgant . In his possession were seasonal helpers pair of oxen , Assistant cab , he had to help cat. To perform these studies used purgant prisoners . In winter, they were purified from gutters ice , shoveling snow, summer collected sewage and mud. Note that to maintain cleanliness in the markets allocate the money, but where they were going , hard to say. Prisoners to work only fed, sometimes gave money 3-4 . On unpaved streets brohaly - smiling in the swamp pigs roamed goats and calves . By the way, pets kept in the end of XIX century. For example, in 1888 in Lviv was 11 LP cows , 2 goats , 302 pigs, 1,752 horses and 3,717 dogs.

Unsanitary conditions created fertile ground for epidemics . And they are not bypassed Lviv . For 450 years , from the XIV to the middle of the XVIII . , Lviv registered 51 epidemic , and recorded the only ones that lasted at least one year . Especially scary was the so-called black four years (1620-1623) , died in Lviv when two thirds of the population. Medicine , in particular diagnosis, remained at very low levels . Therefore , the term " ulcer " and understood the plague and cholera, and typhoid , and smallpox.

When the epidemic began , those who could , fled the city . Poor, who had no where to run and what remained in the city. And often treated that was buried up to his neck in the manure . It is then considered a universal remedy for " ulcer " . Of course , the doctors were in Lviv . But first, use their services only selected , and secondly , their qualification was low. Remained poor hospital - St. Spirit of St.. Stanislaus, St.. Lazarus. Ills of modern medical facilities are distinguished by the fact that there were not only hospitals, but also a home for the elderly , crippled, homeless . Of course, everyone they could not serve .

With XIV. Lviv were several baths. Soap-boiler plant products in great demand , possibly because imported soap Lviv (except for the so-called Greek ) is strictly forbidden . Mylovar soap produced in white, black , green and blue , and the foam was white. Bons produced as powder and lipstick, which enjoyed no less demand than they are now , not only women but also men.

Separately, it should be said about the seasoning. By the era of the Crusades almost all of Europe did not know spices (pepper , nutmeg, saffron, cinnamon , etc.). Flavored food nitrate , salt is much cheaper . Salt in the Middle Ages was an expensive product - in fact the whole of Europe , there were only a few of its deposits. And apparently, it is connected with this old sign: sprinkle salt - to quarrel.

Crusades introduced Europeans to spices , instilled a taste for them , but ... the road that these goods were imported to the West, were blocked by the Turks. It is not surprising that the usual black pepper in Western Europe cost twice as much as gold.

The question arises: what's the Lions ? Belongs to note that he was one of the few cities which spices were among the so-called eastern goods fell in Europe. Called oriental goods brought from the Middle and Far East : spices , precious stones, high quality Indian and Persian edged weapons , Chinese silk , Indian muslins , Persian brocade .

Lions had been said at the time, the exclusive right to the eastern warehouse goods . It was a system of laws and regulations , which generally looked like all oriental goods to be sold only in Lviv , Lviv inhabitants only and only at prices that set the Lions. Violation of the right of confiscation punished caravan. It is easy to understand that a few merchants of Lviv have focused a lot of precious goods , which are then resold with a huge benefit to the West.

Spices cost Lviv inexpensive and are available for personal use . Lviv chef produced a variety of sauces and gravies

Considerable attention is paid in Lviv drink. We can say that there are more drinking than eating , which in general was typical of the time .

Lviv citizens had the exclusive right to manufacture and sell vodka in a radius of three miles from the city center . First, it did little - was very expensive , but eventually increased production. Best considered tsitvarnaya , good - anise . The most expensive and sugar were " adamashkova ." Enjoyed great popularity as ginger and cinnamon . But vodka in Lviv in Article XVI-XVII . drank a little and made ​​it the main for sale outside the city. Preference for wines - Greek , Hungarian , Italian, Spanish , which brought a lot to the city . They drank wine and domestic production. On the modern street . Lysenko on Kleparova grown vineyards. Grapes were predominantly poor quality - and not the soil , and the sun a little, but for the homemade wine suited .

As in all Slavic lands in Galicia amateur zvese - pyuvalnih drinks enjoyed great popularity honey . Ordinary honey digested with vodka, adding berries. Ready honey poured into barrels that were buried in the ground - otherwise could burst hoops. It withstands several years, after which it can be bottled . But the most popular drink in Lviv , undoubtedly had a beer . About as it can be judged by the fact that Lviv beer exported to the country , which will not surprise beer - Bavaria . He was driven there by oxen six weeks , and in a way it does not spoil . Interestingly, such an examination would have survived the modern draft beer.

Had the right to brew beer , any citizen of Lviv, but only the day 's own consumption and not for more than a day or two . This was followed closely shop MEDOVAR brewers and that should a monopoly on trade in beer . Later, in the XVIII century . Nedotrimuvalisya this rule

Uncontrolled use zveselyuvalnih drinks often cause scandals and fights. And then intervened Lviv city guard - tsipaky . The name is derived from the core of their weapons - heavy combat flail Iron Bound .

Tsipaky wore blue clothes with a red border and pewter buttons, and on their heads - caps of black bear fur . On the caps were plaques with a coat of arms . Tsipakiv was 24. Formally, their main objective was the night guard gate of the city - 12 people each. But in fact they served as city police . They served year contract . It was an organization linked mutual responsibility ( " one for all and all for one " ) . Become a member could only when freed vacancy , and it was necessary to guarantee the senior . Tsipaky earned his bread is not easy. For not only had drunk to quench . And speaking baseman city to suppress and pacify and fights between students Jesuit college and the cathedral school , and stop pogroms ...

Also tsipakiv , the order in the next four grooms - bodyguard mayor , they were sent wherever needed armed guards or expected resistance.

Court sentences served cat. In the Middle avoided using words associated with death. Executioner had a very expressive nickname that became the official term - " Malodobry ." His position was paid well - he got 8 zlotys per year, had a share in trading fees , accommodation on the shaft. For each flogging he received a fee : for bashing - 6 pennies for torture - 15-24 money for chopping off heads - 8-18 money. And more gifts from those who carried out the sentences above .

And yet for this post was a bit wanting . General hatred and contempt did life unbearable not only kata , but all his relatives.

Like all medieval cities, Lviv had a coat of arms - a lion walking in the gates . First his image is found on the city seal in 1359 . In 1526, by decree of King Sigismund the Old drinking image walking " Russian Lion " was forbidden. Leo began to depict raised on its hind legs , according to the rules of Western European heraldry. Over time, the coat of arms has been amended before it made ​​the application. In particular, in 1586 Pope Sixtus V gave Lviv of his arms - three hills with eight pointed star above them.

Entertainment in Lviv had a little bit of something with occasional theatrical performances alfresco . Were musicians, singers . Very popular gambling - dice , cards, but enough fans and chess and checkers . Many in the crowd collected annual shooting competition . Threat of attack Tatars , Moldovans and private gentry demanded constant combat readiness. Every resident of the city was supposed to protect him, because hired garrison was expensive , and rely on it was not always possible . Therefore, in Lviv in the XV century . Small Brotherhood was created . Its members could only be Catholics . Ukrainian allowed to participate in the defense of the city , but to become members of the Brotherhood - no. The Jews in general for defense were not allowed , but pay a special tax

Fraternity members were constantly practicing archery , and later - of firearms. Annually organized competitions , which were a kind of test . The winner was declared " Kurkov king" ( " Kurek ," that is a cock - the emblem of the brotherhood ) , year exempt from tax . Arrange a solemn procession . At its head were stained with ram horns and hair strewn with golden sand - a prize for fourth place. Carried him to the peak of the third prize - an expensive piece of cloth cost 21 zloty . Four butchers in white shirts and aprons were ox with gilded horns ( second prize ) . Behind them rode trigger king in royal robes with gilded silver cup in hand - the first prize . As you can see , financial incentives are nicely combined with a moral .

A philosopher once said that civilization is necessarily a sign of a tavern , a prison and a cemetery . Without undertaking an examination of the statement itself , we note that from this point of view , Lviv was very civilized city , and has been here many taverns and prisons , and cemeteries.

The medieval views, the deceased had to hide in consecrated ground . This, of course , is not concerned suicide , and in some cases - and executed by a court. Victims of numerous epidemics usually exported far beyond the city. Hallowed ground was considered only the land around the temple. Therefore, here and there were cemeteries. In the center of the city ( in an area of ​​36 ha) were seven of them , with the monastery . Rich were buried in the crypts ( dungeons) temples, poor as it was nice and the temple .

It is clear that the main role played at the burial confessional - Catholics were buried in Catholic churches , Orthodox and Armenians - the cemeteries of the Assumption Church and Armenian Cathedral . Jews had no cemetery in the city center , and in the place where now is the Krakow market. It has existed since the end of the XIV century. before the 40 - ies of XX century . , when it was destroyed by the Nazis

Now it is difficult to judge the appearance of Lviv cemeteries XIV-XVIII centuries . TOMB tubercle was not. Large stone slabs laid on the grave falls asleep , tightly clutching each other , because there was very little space . Plates produced mainly of sandstone, sometimes of marble. They cut out the name of the deceased , the epitaph at the top - the relief image of the cross at Calvary , and the bottom - the skull and crossbones .

When deposited in the temple of the coffin was lowered into the dungeon is not digging . Over the place put a monument that usually portrayed sleeper. They were made of bronze , marble, alabaster. These statues can now be seen in the Cathedral , Church of the Jesuits and Dominicans .

In those days all over Europe there was a custom to nail the coffin to the end of the portrait of the deceased - the so-called Natrun . After the funeral portrait hung in the temple. Now samples Natrun portraits can be seen in the collections of the Lviv History Museum and the Lviv Art Gallery , where they were kept for about ten . These portraits painted on tin , sometimes on the tree. We know the names of artists , but it was a master of high . Portraits and now hit the subtle psychological , bright colors.

About the Jewish cemetery monuments we can only judge of the few drawings. These were narrow vertical stone slabs set close enough to each other. On each such plate, except the names and epitaphs have placed a special emblem , which allowed to determine who is in the grave - spiritual person , a doctor or a merchant, a girl or a married woman .

Location cemeteries in living quarters was a serious threat to human health . Underground water flows , which were numerous in the city center , eroding the cemetery fell into the wells of water which took most of the city's population. Used temples , especially in summer , sometimes it was simply impossible to stand through smell.

In 1783, by order of the Emperor Joseph II church cemetery were eliminated . Graves around the temples subject to demolition . Crypts should be exempt from the tombs, and hide them in forbidden .

Lviv authorities were in no hurry to execute the order of the Emperor , while re- appeared , which is quite clearly hinted at the consequences of disobedience. And then the work started . Carried it quite netsy - vilizovanimy methods. Coffins were dragged out of the crypts , loaded onto carts and taken out of town, where dumped into pits . Of course, not exclude the possibility of reburial at one of the cemeteries again , there have been four for the number of sites of the city. Pichakivske cemetery served the eastern part of the city and the city center; Stryis'ka - south ; Gorodockaya - western ; Zhovkovsky or Paparivka - north . These cemeteries except Lychakovsky currently do not exist. Place stry -ray cemetery occupied residential quarters and partially - stri - cue park Gorodok - residential areas and partially - Privokzalny market. On-site Paparivky Station is Podzamche . Leach -sky preserved due to the fact that here were buried wealthy residents downtown and aristocracy .

Thus , in general, was Lviv life in the Middle Ages . As you can see , a little romance - much more severe daily work , deprivation , constant sense of danger .

Intensive development of the industry in the second half of the XIX century . Oil deposits were discovered in Borislav , railways connected the Lions with the capital of the empire and other European cities . The city tram track laid , introduced gas and then electric lighting. Construction of new neighborhoods appear theaters, expensive hotels , banks , public institutions . In 1870, Galicia gained the status of autonomous control . Regional exhibition in 1894 was a major event of economic and cultural life of Lvov and Galicia. End of the century XIX - early XX century - is also a period of national revival of Galician Ukrainian . Lviv became the center of national revival , lived and worked here prominent political and cultural figures .

After World War I Austro- Hungarian Empire collapsed. Countries that were part of it, gained independence . November 1, 1918 in Lviv proclaimed West - Ukrainian People's Republic . But the new state lasted only a few months - after the bloody Ukrainian -Polish war Galicia again for 20 years is under Polish rule . This period was particularly difficult for the Ukrainian population of Galicia .

In 1939, according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact Western Ukraine is a part of the USSR. Parish of Soviet troops in Lviv leads the harsh repression of the local population , exile in Siberia , penalty. But in 1941 , Soviet troops are retreating under the pressure of the German troops. 1941-1944 - during the German occupation . During the Second World War troops Ukrainian patriots to wage an unequal struggle against the Nazis and the Communists . Underground struggle in Western Ukraine lasted until the mid-fifties .

In 1944 Lviv became part of the USSR. But even during the Soviet domination of the city has managed largely to preserve their national identity. In the late 80's Lions played a leading role in the struggle for independence and democracy .

August 24, 1991 - the day when the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine adopted the Declaration of Independence , was the beginning of a new era in the history and the beginning of a big change for the city .